What are Communication Protocol and their types?

A communication or network protocol is a set of rules for communicating between computing devices. It governs format, timing, sequencing, and error control. Without these rules, the computer cannot make sense of incoming/outgoing bits. A protocol defines how computers identify one another in a network, the form of the data during transmission, and how data is processed once it reaches its final destination.

Communication between computers depends on the protocols used. The protocol used by a computer in the network must be well suited to the protocol used by another computer. The rules include guidelines that regulate a network's following characteristics: access method, allowed physical topologies, types of cabling, and speed of data transfer.

The most commonly used network protocols are:

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol: TCP/IP is a layered set of protocols. TCP is a very good, but complex transmission protocol. It is a stream connection-oriented and reliable transport protocol. It adds connection-oriented and reliability features.TCP is responsible for making sure that the data is transmitted to other ends. It keeps track of what is sent and retransmits any data that has not reached its destination.

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communication protocol used for transmitting data packets across and network using the Internet Protocol Suite. It is the main protocol that forms and organizes the Internet.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol): UDP is a simple, connectionless, unreliable transport protocol. It performs very limited error checking. It is mainly used to transmit multimedia data, which requires faster transmission and error checking.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol): SMTP is a standard protocol for transmitting electronic mail (email) by the Internet. It is an Internet mail protocol. It is a TCP/IP protocol used to send emails.

POP (Post Office Protocol): POP is also a protocol for transmitting email. It is simple but has limited functionality. It is an application-layer Internet standard protocol that transfers e-mail from a remote server to local webmail clients over a TCP/IP connection. POP3 (POP version 3) is used at present. Most webmail services like Gmail, Hotmail, and Yahoo supports POP3.

IMAP (Internet Mail Access Protocol): IMAP4 (IMAP version 4) is similar to POP3, but has more features. IMAP4 is more powerful and more complex. Other than POP, IMAP is the most powerful Internet standard protocol for e-mail retrieval. Virtually all modern webmail servers and e-mail client supports both POP3 and IMAP protocols for transmission of mail messages from a server.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol): FTP is a standard protocol provided by the Internet for copying a file from one computer to another. Although file transmission from one system to another is a simple and easy task, it may create some problems like; two systems may use different file name conventions. Two systems may represent data and text in a different way. Two systems may have different directory structures. FTP tackles and solves all these problems very easily and efficiently.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol): HTTP is a client-server protocol that allows data exchange on the Web. It is used for transmitting hypertext or HTML-based document. It is the foundation of networking, data transmission, and communication for the World Wide Web.

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure): HTTPS combines Hypertext Transfer Protocol and SSL/TLS protocol to enable encrypted data transmission and secures the communication process and identification of a network. This connection is used to perform payment transactions and sensitive data transmission on the World Wide Web to encrypt those data and secure it. The main aim of HTTPS is to secure data transmission and communication over an insecure network.

Telnet: Telnet is an ordinary network protocol used on the Internet to exchange data. Due to security issues in Telnet, it is replaced by Secure Shell (SSH) and it is popular in most servers. It is the simplest media for data transmission between two computers. It allows computers within the computer network or worldwide Internet to transfer and exchange data and information in real-time.

VoIP(Voice over Internet Protocol): VoIP is a methodology and group of technologies for the transmission of voice communications and multimedia data over Internet protocol, such as the Internet. Other terms commonly associated with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, broadband telephony, and broadband phone service.

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