What is a program design tool? Pseudocode, Algorithm, and Flowchart

Program Design Tools, also known as Programming Tools, are the tools used to create a program. Various tools are required when designing a program to solve a variety of problems. Some of the most widely used tools are as follows:

1. Structured English (Pseudocode):

The general meaning of Pseudocode is false code or fake code. Before developing an actual program, we construct a pseudocode program that looks like an algorithm and flowchart-based code. Pseudocode is code that is not syntactically accurate but appears to be program code. The pseudocode instruction is written using English mathematical phrases and expressions. There are no hard and fast rules for writing instructions, but the instructions are closer to high-level language instructions. As a result, before designing pseudo-code, designers should have a fundamental understanding of high-level language. It does not need the usage of a programming language of any kind.

Example: Pseudocode for calculating the area of a rectangle
> Input length, breadth
> Calculate area = length*breadth
> Output area

2. Algorithm:

An algorithm is a sequence of instructions or step-by-step instructions to find the solution to a problem. An algorithm should be simple and clear. It should be concise and lead to the solution of the problem in a limited number of steps.

In other words, an algorithm is a set of rules that explain how a specific problem can be addressed in a finite number of steps. An algorithm is made up of a limited number of stages, each of which may require one or more actions. Each operation must be definite, effective, and finite.

In a programming language, a program is the expression of an algorithm. Thus, the success of a program depends on the algorithm. As a result, the problem's logic must be explicitly defined in an algorithm. In another way, we can say that an algorithm is a collection of a finite number of instructions arranged in a sequence to find the solution to a problem.

Example 1: Algorithm to find the sum of two numbers.

Step1: Start the program
Step2: Input number x,y
Step3: Read x, y
Step4: Z←x+y
Step5: Print Z
Step6: Stop the program

Example 2: An algorithm to go to the football stadium and see a football match.

Step1: Start the program
Step2: Go to the football stadium
Step3: Is the ticket counter open?
Step4: If it is not open, return home
Step5: If it is open, buy a ticket
Step6: Get into the football stadium
Step7: Watch the match
Step8: Return home
Step9: End the program

3. Flowchart:

A flowchart is a visual representation of an algorithm. It can alternatively be described as a symbol-based program planning tool for structuring a sequence of steps required to address a problem.

A flowchart uses symbols that have geometrical shapes to indicate the different operations. Flow lines connect these symbols, indicating the sequence in which the various tasks are carried out. Programmers use it to create programs, while system designers use it to represent the entire system while evaluating and developing it.

Example:

Flowchart Example

The advantages of the flowchart are:
  1. It is an independent language. As a result, the flowchart we create for programming in one language can also be used for programming in another.
  2. It is relatively simple to code just by looking at the algorithm once the flowchart has been prepared.
  3. It is very easy to understand the logic of the program by designing the flowchart. With the help of a flowchart, even individuals who aren't familiar with coding may understand the logic of a program.
  4. With the use of a flowchart, systematic debugging and testing is simple.
  5. It provides an organization with useful documents.
  6. It aids in the debugging of the application.
  7. It conveys important information that hundreds of words cannot convey.
  8. It is more user-friendly and easier to comprehend.
  9. It defines a procedure's logical sequence.
  10. It is unambiguous since there can only be one logical direction at any given time.
  11. It is used as a working model in the design of new programs and systems.
The disadvantages of the flowchart are:
  1. It takes a long time to create a flowchart.
  2. If there is a change in logic again, we have to develop a new flowchart.
  3. There is no easy way to emphasize the most significant operation in a flowchart.
  4. The flowchart is expensive to create and use, as well as difficult to manage.
  5. Planning and drawing complex and detailed charts can be time-consuming.
  6. The translation of flowcharts into computer programs is not easy.
  7. The creation of a flowchart is a lengthy procedure.
  8. Flowcharts, according to most software developers, are a waste of time and slow down the software development process. As a result, they don't begin software development using flowcharts. Flowcharts are only used for documentation purposes.
Symbols for flowcharts:

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